Main Category: Engineering & Technology >> Sub Category: Highway Engineering
Highway engineering handbook, 2nd edition

Environmental issues play a major role in the planning, design, construction, and rehabilitation of highways. Indeed, their prominence has grown as the public has become increasingly informed on environmental issues and associated requirements. This chapter provides an overview to lend guidance in understanding environmental issues, and information to aid in the process of effectively addressing the various requirements in this area. It begins with an overall review of the numerous federal laws and regulations that must be considered. A thorough discussion is provided of the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act and the preparation of environmental impact statements.     

Author Name :Darryl Shoemaker, Jack Allen, Margaret Ballard, Stephen David, George Eliason

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Inter Vehicle Communications Based on Ad Hoc Networking Principles

Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) can help to increase safety and comfort 4 on the road'. As an element for active, i.e., preventive safety, these VANETs can efficiently warn and inform drivers via direct wireless inter-vehicle communications. Thereby, the range of awareness of a driver is extended from current line-of-sight to the radio range of a wireless transceiver. With multi-hop communication, each vehicle can benefit from the locally sensed data of surrounding vehicles or from multi-hop access opportunities. Clearly, sensing, disseminating and retrieving information on the current surrounding shows a potential for improving transport efficiency and comfort. Vehicular ad hoc networks represent a major technological challenge. Safety-related applications require a high degree of reliability and robustness of the communication system. Unfortunately, vehicular scenarios present adverse channel conditions due to the potential high mobility as well as density of nodes and high number of objects able to degrade the quality of a transmitted signal. All applications have to efficiently make use of the scarce bandwidth resource as well. Therefore, efficient and effective medium access control, routing, and data forwarding mechanisms play an essential role. Applications need clever data aggregation strategies to avoid an overload on the wireless medium.     

Author Name :Walter Franz, Hannes Hartenstein, Martin Mauve

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